Many patients with hip joint arthritis are able to control their symptoms and do not require surgery. Non-surgical treatments may reduce pain and improve function, delaying or removing the need for surgery. For this reason, it is strongly recommended that patients with hip arthritis trial non-surgical treatments before undertaking an operation. It should be noted however that most types of arthritis are permanent and progressive. While non-surgical treatments may assist in improving symptoms, the condition will remain. If symptoms are persistent despite adequate non-surgical treatment, then an operation may be a better alternative.
Weight loss decreases the force placed through the joint and often results in a significant improvement in symptoms. Professional advice will often help – speak with your General Practitioner or weight loss centre.
Regular exercise is important to improve muscle condition and also for general health, however high impact activity often causes worsening of arthritis symptoms. Exercises which are often well tolerated by patients with hip arthritis include swimming, cycling, aqua-aerobics and walking. A walking stick (used in the opposite hand to your arthritic hip) often makes walking more comfortable.
There are many medications on the market for the treatment of hip arthritis. Some are more effective in some patients than others . Often a combination of medications taken together is the most effective strategy. Some patients get worsening of pain at certain times during the day or at night – taking your medications around these times is recommended. Some medications (paracetamol, glucosamine) are best taken on a regular basis while others (anti-inflammatory medications, pain killers) should be used for short periods to treat ‘flare-ups’. Patients with inflammatory types of arthritis (for example rheumatoid arthritis) should follow the advice of a rheumatologist.
Paracetamol usually needs to be taken a number of times during the day for best effect. Longer acting preparations for use in arthritic conditions (eg. Panadol Osteo) are now available.
Anti-inflammatory medications (eg Ibuprofen, Naprosyn, Celebrex)
Anti-inflammatory medications are effective in reducing the symptoms of osteoarthritis. Caution must be taken as they may cause side effects such as stomach erosions, particularly when taken for extended durations. Other side effects include worsening of asthma or kidney troubles. For this reason, anti-inflammatory medications are best used for short periods of time, for the management of ‘flare-ups’. If you have tried one type of anti-inflammatory medication but it was not helpful, trying a different preparation may still be worthwhile. Some types of anti-inflammatory medications are available as once a day (one tablet) preparation.
Pain Killers (eg Panadiene Forte, Codiene, Tramadol, Morphine)
Recommended for limited periods of use only. If pain is severe enough to require strong pain killers on a regular basis, then surgery should be considered.
Anti-inflammatory steroid injections into the hip joint may provide temporary improvement in symptoms. Injections into the hip joint need to be conducted with either X-Ray or ultrasound guidance. Usually a combination of anti-inflammatory steroid and local anaesthetic is used, and may provide partial symptom relief for 4-6 months. Steroid injections are safe, but marginally increase the risk of infection if a joint replacement procedure is conducted shortly afterwards.
Synvisc Injections (Viscosupplementation)
Synvisc is an injectable medication which improves the quality of the lubricant (synovial fluid) within the joint. Injections into the hip joint need to be conducted with either X-Ray or ultrasound guidance. A single injection provides on average a 30% reduction in pain for 6 – 12 months. A present Synvisc is not listed on the Australian PBS (Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme) which means that patients bear the full cost of the medication without government assistance. Some health care funds may provide assistance depending on your cover.
Physiotherapy is of significant value in the treatment of some hip disorders. For patients with moderate or advanced hip arthritis, physiotherapy is generally less effective in the long term. Physiotherapy is of particular value when specific problems such as muscle weakness or a tight fibrous band on the outer aspect of the hip are identified.
Glucosamine and Chondroitin
Glucosamine and chondroitin are nutritional supplements. People take them to help build new cartilage. Glucosamine and chondroitin are not regulated as drugs in Australia, so their quality may vary. Minor side effects include upset stomach, diarrhea, and headache. Research studies tell us that more than half the people with osteoarthritis taking glucosamine and chondroitin improve. They have less pain and better movement. But in these studies, the same number of people who do not take the supplements also improve. This means that glucosamine and chondroitin are not the reason that some people improve.